UZGOJ INDUSTRIJSKE KONOPLJE

Slika iznad prikazuje faze rasta industrijske konoplje. 1.) prikazuje klijanje sjemena, 2.) početak rasta, 3.) i 4.) vegetativni rast, 5.) početak cvjetanja  6.) ženski cvijet u punom razvoju 6.) kraj godišnjeg ciklusa kanabisa sa zrelim sjemenkama

 

 

Proizvodnja industrijske konoplje

Tlo
Konoplja raste u sličnim uvjetima u kojima rastu kulture poput kukuruza ili hmelja. Optimalno prozračna i srednje teška tla s otprilike neutralnim pH (oko 6-7).  Slabije uspijeva u teškom, hladnom tlu, kao i u plitkom, pješčanom i kiselom tlu.

 

Klimatski uvjeti

U našim krajevima optimalna temperatura za klijanje, rast i razvoj je 18-20°C. Po tome idealno vrijeme sijanja bi bio početak travnja. Sortama južnog ekotipa također odgovaraju više temperature.

Rast

Konoplji za sazrijevanje potrebno je od 90 do 150 dana. Vrijeme ovisi o pojedinim sortama prilagođenim različitim klimatskim uvjetima. Rane sorte, kao što su USO 31, Ferimon 12 i Finola, sazru za tri mjeseca, one su prilagođene sjevernim podnebljima. Dok kasne sorte, kao Futura Santhica 75 i 27, koje su prilagođene toploj južnoj klimi, rastu i do 140 do 150 dana.


Rast konoplje može se ugrubo podijeliti na dva dijela, vegetativno razdoblje i cvjetanja odnosno sazrijevanja. Sijanjem počinje vegetacije, kada biljka intenzivno raste u visinu, i razvija lišće.


Početak cvatnje pojavljuje kao reakcija na skraćivanje dana. Vrijeme formiranja cvjetova ovisi o sorti (genetske adaptacije na okolinu) i klimatskim uvjetima kojima je biljka bila izložena.

Kronologija rast industrijske konoplje

Klijanje od 0 do 4-9 dana
Klijanje počne nakon 4-9 dana, ovisno o tlu i temperaturi. To je najosjetljivija faza rasta.


Implantacija (4-9 dan do 3 tjedna)
Spora faza rasta, tijekom koje je biljka pokrivaju na tlu. Da se postigne pravilna gustoća potrebna su tri tjedna. Nakon završetka ove faze biljke dosegnu visinu od oko 25-50 cm i imaju 3 para listova.


Aktivno rast (3 tjedna do 2,5 mjeseca)
Razdoblje od kraja implantacije do početka cvatnje. Tijekom tog razdoblja, nastaje budući oblik slame i vlakana, ako su naravno, ispunjene sve potrebe za hranjivim tvarima i vodom, koji su u tom razdoblju najvažnije.


Cvjetanje
Pojava prvih cvjetova uglavnom ovisi o temperaturnim uvjetima, još od klijanja, početka skraćivanja dužine dana i sorte konoplje. Tijekom ovog razdoblja, rast počinje usporavati.


U punom cvatu
U fazi kada se otvore posljednji ženski cvjetovi, biljka jako ovisi o svjetlu. Određene vrste uzgajaju se u određenom području, kako bi došlo do ove faze u određeno vrijeme.


Kraj cvjetanja
Kraj cvjetanja određuje zadnja oplodnja ženskih cvjetova, time označava kraj rasta. Tijekom tog vremena, odrediti što će biti konačni doprinos slame i ukazuje na kvalitetu sazrijevanja slame i sjemena.


Zrelost sjemenki
Sjeme je zrelo 40 dana nakon punog cvata. Prije žetve treba uzeti u obzir vlažnost sjemenki i provjeriti raspoloživost sušara, zbog toga se žetva može značajno odgoditi. Sjeme ravno sa žetve mora ići u sušaru, lišće i cvjetovi se objese u potkrovlje, a stabljike se suše na polju.

 

 

Tablica u nastavku prikazuje rast sorti Felina 32. Felina 32 spada u srednje kasnu sortu koja cvate oko 15. srpnja, zrele sjemenke može se očekivati oko 20. rujna. Tablica također ukazuje na količinu usjeva i očekivanog fiziološkog razvoja u određenoj fazi rasta.

Časovnica rasti industrijske konoplje za sorto Felina 32

 

Datum

5.5.

11.5.

15.5.

20.5.

25.5.

2.6.

12.6.

20.6.

30.6.

15.7.

5.8.

12.8.

25.8.

20.9.

Dnevi rasti

0

6

10

15

20

28

38

46

56

71

93

100

110

135

Višina v cm

-

-

8

10

25

50

90

115

150

180

185

190

190 - 200

190 - 200

Faza rasti

Setev

Kaljenje

Prvi par listov

Drugi par listov

Tretji par listov

Aktivna rast

Aktivna rast

Aktivna rast

Aktivna rast

Začetek cvetenja

Polno cvetenje

Konec cvetenja

Dozorevanje

semena

Zrelost žetev

 

IZBOR SORT KONOPLJE, PRIMERNIH ZA SETEV V SLOVENIJI:

SORTA:

POREKLO:

DOBAVITELJ:

Uso 31

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Fedora 17

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Felina 32

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Futura 75

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Ferimon 12

Francoska sorta ( enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Santhica 27

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz o.o.o.

Santhica 70

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Epsilon 68

Francoska sorta (enodomna)

Hannah biz d.o.o.

Kompolti hibrid TC

Madžarski hibrid (dvodomna)

Dejan R., Gorička ves d.o.o.

Monoica

Madžarska sorta (enodomna)

Dejan R., Gorička ves d.o.o

Tisza

Madžarska sorta (dvodomna)

Dejan R., Gorička ves d.o.o

KC-Dora

Madžarska sorta (eno in dvodomna)

Dejan R., Gorička ves d.o.o

Tiborszalasi

Madžarska sorta (dvodomna)

Dejan R., Gorička ves d.o.o

Finola

Finska sorta (dvodomna)

Ni uradnega uvoznika

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